EMERGENCY BANKING RELIEF ACT
The actions, regulations, rules, licenses, orders and proclamations heretofore or hereafter taken, promulgated, made, or issued by the President of the United States or the Secretary of the Treasury since March 4, 1933, pursuant to the authority conferred by subdivision (b) of section 5 of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, are hereby approved and confirmed.
(HERETOFORE & HEREAFTER)
Empire of the Cities Flag – The Three Cities that rule the World
Vatican City (A Sovereign City-State)
Main article: Vatican City
Until 1870, the city of Rome had been controlled by the pope as part of his “papal states”. When King Victor Emmanuel II annexed the city in 1870, Pope Pius IX refused to recognize the newly formed Kingdom of Italy. Because he could not travel through a place that he did not admit existed, Pius IX and his successors each claimed to be a “Prisoner in the Vatican”, unable to leave the 0.44 km² (0.17-square mile) papal enclave once they had ascended the papal thrones.
The impasse was resolved in 1929 by the Lateran Treaties negotiated by the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini between King Victor Emmanuel III and Pope Pius XI. Under this treaty, the Vatican was recognized as an independent state, with the pope as its head. The Vatican City State has its own citizenship, diplomatic corps, flag, and postal system[clarification needed]. With a population of less than 1,000, it is by far the smallest sovereign country in the world, and widely recognized internationally as such.
City of London (A Non-Sovereign City-State)
See also: City of London Corporation
Although the City of London (a geographically small city within Greater London) is not commonly considered a city-state, it does have a unique political status (sui generis), a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Anglo-Saxon period and its singular relationship with the Crown. Historically, its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835.
It is administered by the City of London Corporation, headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London (not the same post as the more recent Mayor of London, who presides over Greater London). The City of London is a ceremonial county too, although instead of having its own Lord-Lieutenant, the City of London has a Commission, headed by the Lord Mayor, exercising this function.
Washington, D.C. (A Non-Sovereign City-State)
Not being part of any U.S. state, Washington, D.C.’s government operates under authority derived from the U.S. federal government. The city (generally referred to as “the District) is run by an elected mayor and a city council. The council is composed of 13 members: one elected from each of the eight wards and five members, including the chairman, elected at large. The council conducts its work through standing committees and special committees established as needed. District schools are administered by a chancellor, who is appointed by the mayor; in addition, a superintendent of education and a board of education are responsible for setting some educational policies. There are 37 elected Advisory Neighborhood Commissioners that provide the most direct access for residents to their local government. The commissioners are elected by small neighborhood districts, and their suggestions are given “great weight” by the city council and city agencies. However, the U.S. Congress has the ultimate plenary power over the District. It has the right to review and overrule laws created locally and has often done so. The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which grants to states all rights not belonging to the federal government, does not apply to the District. Residents of the District do not have voting representation in the U.S. Congress.